Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis) are typically found in groups of 4 to 12, but may be seen in groups of up to 50 animals. The males (stags) are usually separate from the females (hinds). They were probably introduced for game hunting. Their primary predator is the Komodo dragon, but they are also poached by humans, and killed by feral dogs. Preferred habitat is grassland and open woodland. The mating season is June – August and the young are born in January – May. Deer are able to mate at 2 years of age. Females generally have one offspring, but twins occur occasionally. Deer feed on grass shoots, twigs, some fruits, and young leaves. Hoogerwerf estimated the deer population size on Komodo Island to be 500 individuals in 1953. A survey conducted on Padar Island by Claudio Ciofi, park rangers and a student from Udayana University in 1998 found a density of approximately 59 individuals per km2 in their sample. This is provided as a preliminary estimate only, and does not take into account habitat variation. They estimate that the population on Padar may be somewhere between 800 and 1,000 animals.